Introduction to Blog

I launched the website and the Blog after having spoken to government officials, political analysts and security experts specializing in South Asian affairs from three continents. The feedback was uniformly consistent. The bottom line is that when Kashmiris are suffering and the world has its own set of priorities, we need to find ways to help each other. We must be realistic, go beyond polemics and demagoguery, and propose innovative ideas that will bring peace, justice and prosperity in all of Jammu and Kashmir.

The author had two reasons to create this blog. First, it was to address the question that was being asked repeatedly, especially, by journalists and other observers in the U.S., U.K., and Canada, inquiring whether the Kashmiri society was concerned about social, cultural and environmental challenges in the valley given that only political upheaval and violence were reported or highlighted by media.

Second, the author has covered the entire spectrum of societal issues and challenges facing Kashmiri people over an 8-year period with the exception of politics given that politics gets all the exposure at the expense of REAL CHALLENGES that will likely result in irreversible degradation in the quality of life and the standard of living for future generations of Kashmiris to come.

The author stopped adding additional material to the Blog once it was felt that most, if not all, concerns, challenges and issues facing the Kashmiri society are cataloged in the Blog. There are over 1900 entries in the Blog and most commentaries include short biographical sketches of authors to bring readers close to the essence of Kashmir. Unfortunately, the 8-year assessment also indicates that neither Kashmiri civil society, nor intellectuals or political leadership have any inclination or enthusiasm in pursuing issues that do not coincide with their vested political agendas. What it means for the future of Kashmiri children and their children is unfathomable. But the evidence is all laid out.

This Blog is a reality check on Kashmir. It is a historical record of how Kashmir lost its way.

Vijay Sazawal, Ph.D.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

Power Generation in J&K

Ashraf conducts a due deligence on the power situation in the state

(Mr. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili, 68, was born in Srinagar. He received his early schooling from the Government Middle School, Nowhatta, Srinagar, and from M.P. High School, Baghi Dilawar Khan in Srinagar. Mr. Fazili completed his F.Sc. from the Sri Pratap College in Srinagar, and received his Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from the Annamalai University with honours grade. He joined the J&K government service upon graduation and steadily rose up the ranks to the position of Chief Engineer at his retirement. He managed a number of important infrastructure projects during his government service, including the Model Town Chrar-i-Sharif, Lower Jhelum Hydro Electric Project, Solid Waste Disposal Scheme Srinagar City, Circular Road Project Srinagar City, etc. He has numerous publications to his credit, including Srinagar the Sun City, Our Ancestors and Saints of Kashmir, etc., which were presented in seminar and symposia. He writes for various journals and is presently working on the Jhelum Valley Civilization.)


Power Development Corporation:

Power Development in Jammu and Kashmir has a long and distinguished history. 9MW Mohra Hydro-electric Plant, among the first of its kind in the subcontinent, was developed as early as 1905. The estimated hydel potential is about 20,000 MW, out of which projects of about 16,200 MW capacity have already been identified. These projects are techno-economically viable, besides being eco-friendly and socially beneficial. In order to harness this potential in a sustained manner, the Government of J&K established the Jammu & Kashmir State Power Development Corporation Limited (JKSPDCL) which has been incorporated as Private limited company on 16th February 1995. The Corporation was incorporated to takeover, execute, complete, operate and maintain all power stations and power projects of the State. The assets of all the power projects in the State, both existing and under implementation were transferred to the Corporation. The Corporation presently has 20 hydroelectric projects with installed capacity of 758.70MW located in various districts of Jammu & Kashmir including 450MW BHEP. The Corporation has Gas Turbines based on HSD with installed capacity of 175 MW at Pampore near Srinagar. In accordance with the State Hydel Policy, 2003 JKSPDC has allotted 10 small HEPs with a total capacity of 110.50 MWs under IPP phase-I. The State Government is presently reviewing existing State Hydel policy, 2003 for project implementation from 2-100MW to make it more investor friendly and thus attract investment and expertise from private players in the sector on a large scale. J & K State in one its achievements took lead in award of a mega hydro power scheme on tariff based competitive bidding process. J & K is the first State in India to award 690 MW Ratle HEP (mega hydro power project) on BOOT basis through a tariff based competitive bidding process. The corporation is also pursuing the development of geothermal project in Pugah valley of Leh, Ladakh.

Existing Projects:

Lower Jhelum 3 x 35 105
Upper Sindh-I 2x11.3 22.6
Ganderbal 2x3+2x4.5 15
Upper Sindh-II 3x35 105
Pahalgam 2 x 1.5 3
Karnah 2x1 2
Chenab Basin
Chenani-I 5x4.66 23.30
Chennai-II 2x1 2
Chenani-III 3x2.5 7.50
Bhaderwah 2 x 0.5 1
Baglihar 3x150 450
Ravi Basin
Sewa-III 3x3 9
Indus Basin
Iqbal 3x1.25 3.75
Hunder 2x0.20 0.40
Sumoor 2x0.05 0.10
Igo-Mercellong 2x1.50 3
Haftal 2x0.50 1
Marpachoo 3x0.25 0.75
Bazgo 2x0.15 0.30
Stakna 2x2 4
Total 758.70
Salal HEP 6x115 690
Uri -I 4x120 480
Dul-Hasti 3x130 390
Total 1560

Upcoming Projects:

Name of Power Project Capacity in MW

Baglihar Stage-II 450
Pahalgam (3rd Unit) 1.50
Matchil 0.35
Baderwah (3rd Unit) 0.5
Sanjak 1.26
Total 453.61

Uri-II 240
Sewa-II 120
Nimo Bazgo 45
Chutak 44
Total 449

Projects being taken up for the development in State/Central Sector.

S.No. Name of the Project Name of the Basin Estimated Capacity ( MW)
1. Sawalkote I&II Chenab 1200
2. Baglihar-II Chenab 450
3. Parnai Jehlum 37.5
4. New Ganderbal Jehlum 93
5. Lower Kalnai Chenab 50
6. Kirthai-I Chenab 240
7. Kiru Chenab 600
8. Ratle Chenab 690
9. Kawar Chenab 520
10. Ujh Multipurpose Project Ravi 280
11. Pakul Dul (Central Sector) Chenab 1000
12. Bursar (Central Sector) Chenab 1020
13. Kishenganga (Central Sector) Jehlum 330

IPP Phase-I (Under Implementation)
S.No. Name of the Project District Capacity
1. Ratle Kishtwar 690.00
2. Athwathoo Bandipura 10.00
3. Tangmarg Baramulla 10.00
4. Aharbal Pulwama 22.50
5. Hirapora Pulwama 12.00
6. Brenwar Budgam 5.00
7. Kahmil Kupwara 4.00
8. Boniyar Baramulla 12.00
9. Mandi Poonch 12.50
10. Ranjala Dunadi Doda 15.00
11. Drung Kathua 5.00

The existing Ganderbal power station is the last of the hydro stations at the tail end of Sindh river and was commissioned in 1955. The station is located at Ganderbal -20 km from Srinagar city on Srinagar-Leh highway. The installed capacity of the station is 15 MW. The station has served 56 years and outlived its normal life. The station had been giving trouble and units had been derated Thus PDC decided to take effective measures to improve the power generation at this power station. It was decided in 1990 to build a new station and utilize the existing derated units with some renovation for 6/7 years till the new ones are commissioned.

The growth of power demand in the J&K State has increased tremendously specially in view of the demand on account of Lift Irrigation, Agro Industries, Extension of Rural development, Industrial Expansion, Telecommunications, Water conveniences etc. The total installed capacity in the State is about 758.70 MW plus stand by gas turbine capacity of 175 MW and the total requirement far exceeds it. The present power demand is estimated to be 1850 MW, hence there is a shortfall of about 1100 MW.

The population of Srinagar has increased since independence to about 12 Lakhs. Increase in generation of power to the existing system is microscopic as only a small percentage of the generated power by NHPC is shared with the State. (There has been much contoversy on the issue of taking back the projects from NHPC) This hopeless situation prevails is inspite of the connection of the valley to the northern grid and any import of power is to be bougght at a heavy price.. The miserable condition of the city of Srinagar and the rural areas is evident to the residents as well as to the visitors. The speedy completion of in-progress projects is the need of the hour, besides the proposed New Ganderbal project so close to the city of Srinagar, would go a long way to help the State.

The river Sindh is one of the major tributaries of Jhelum, starting in the mountains of Sonamarg at Panchtarani. It has a fall of 2110 meters in a length of 87 Kms upto Ganderbal. The river has large power potential and efforts are under way to tap this renewable source of energy. The various projects which are existing and those which are planned are as under:

Existing Projects: (in order of ascendency)

a) Ganderbal Project: The old power station at Ganderbal was commissioned in the year 1955 and has an installed capacity of 15 MW, now derated to about 11 MW. This station utilises a head of 140 m.
b) Upper Sindh Hydel Project (Stage II)
This project utilizes the head of about 220 m between Sumbal and Kangan. The power house at Kangan has an installed capacity of 70 MW. There was also a provision for adding another unit of 35 MW in the second phase of the project.
c) Upper Sindh Hydel Project (Stage I)
This power station utilises the head of about 150 m between Kulan and Sumbal. The power house at Sumbal has an installed capacity of 22.6 MW This was commissioned in the year 1974.
Future Projects:
a) Shitkari Kulan H.E. Project ( Stage I) -head = 500m, Proposed Inst. Capacity= 84 MW.
b) Shitkari Kulan M.E. Project (Stage II) high dam,proposed inst. capacity= 165 M.
c) No proposals to utilise the drop of 950 m between Panchtarni and Nilgrar due to severe winter conditions and complex geological conditions.

PHE Department have under consideration a proposal to provide a free flow tunnel for augmenting the supply of rain water to Srinagar City water supply system for meeting growing demand. This scheme consists of diverting the water of Sindh river near Prang. It was considered that this tunnel for municipal water supply can be usefully utilised for conveying water for generation of power requirements also. A new diversion structure would also be necessary in view of the bad state in which the present structure is functioning. The existing power station will be abondoned only after the new station comes into operation which may take about 7/8 years after sanction and making availability of funds possible.

In addition the Kangan Power House has been planned to be operated as peaking station. The releases unless picked up and stored at Preng, will be wasted during peak hours. The bad state of rockfill weir at Prang plus losses along 14 km. length of canal are reasons for the less discharge supposed to be diverted from the tail race of the USHP at Kangan.

To meet the power, water supply and irrigation demands the water conductor system for a discharge of 49 cumecs has been designed. With the amount of water available for power generation and the balancing capacity, provision of an installation of about 60 MW consisting of 4 units of 15 MW have been found appropriate. A free flow/pressure tunnel of about 4.80 m diameter horse-shoe shape conducts water from the diversion weir to the forebay surge shaft from where penstocks take off.

The project is located on the outskirts of srinagar city. srinagar has registered a phenomenal growth of population from 2 lakhs in 1941 to 12 lakhs at present. added to this, the city attracts a large number of tourists, commuting population and this makes the population almost double in peak tourist season. Being close to the city, the transmission losses from the power station to the city are minimum as compared to those of the other power houses located in farther areas. The head race tunnel of 4.8 m diameter is 10.8 km long, from surge shaft one branch tunnel of 2m diameter takes off for feeding the water supply requirements which shall empty at Rangil reservoir.

The new power house site is proposed to be adjacent to the existing power house and the tail rasce channel passes through low lying area and open fields and the discharge falls into river Sindh, just before its start fanning out into the Anchar lake. The proposed alignment has got built up during the past few years due to pressure of urbanisation.

Office and residential complexes were proposed to be constructed on the open land at Nunar to be acquired for the purpose.

The construction of infrastructure facilities were taken up in the year 1994-95, when I was posted as Executive Engineer in the project and procurement of materials besides land acquistion proceedings were initiated besides tendering process for tunnel construction, but the work got stalled due to unfavourable circumstances created in the valley.

The Stage-I of the project was estimated to cost about Rs. 115 crores and the generation cost was worked out to 61 Paise/ KWH.

Now recently it has come in the media that Government has the intention of resuming the work on this vital Hydroelectric Project. Let us pray for early action on this behalf.

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