Introduction to Blog

I launched the website and the Blog after having spoken to government officials, political analysts and security experts specializing in South Asian affairs from three continents. The feedback was uniformly consistent. The bottom line is that when Kashmiris are suffering and the world has its own set of priorities, we need to find ways to help each other. We must be realistic, go beyond polemics and demagoguery, and propose innovative ideas that will bring peace, justice and prosperity in all of Jammu and Kashmir.

The author had two reasons to create this blog. First, it was to address the question that was being asked repeatedly, especially, by journalists and other observers in the U.S., U.K., and Canada, inquiring whether the Kashmiri society was concerned about social, cultural and environmental challenges in the valley given that only political upheaval and violence were reported or highlighted by media.

Second, the author has covered the entire spectrum of societal issues and challenges facing Kashmiri people over an 8-year period with the exception of politics given that politics gets all the exposure at the expense of REAL CHALLENGES that will likely result in irreversible degradation in the quality of life and the standard of living for future generations of Kashmiris to come.

The author stopped adding additional material to the Blog once it was felt that most, if not all, concerns, challenges and issues facing the Kashmiri society are cataloged in the Blog. There are over 1900 entries in the Blog and most commentaries include short biographical sketches of authors to bring readers close to the essence of Kashmir. Unfortunately, the 8-year assessment also indicates that neither Kashmiri civil society, nor intellectuals or political leadership have any inclination or enthusiasm in pursuing issues that do not coincide with their vested political agendas. What it means for the future of Kashmiri children and their children is unfathomable. But the evidence is all laid out.

This Blog is a reality check on Kashmir. It is a historical record of how Kashmir lost its way.

Vijay Sazawal, Ph.D.

Sunday, May 12, 2013

The Blowback

Majeed says attracting large number of tourists may put more money in the economy, but at what price? 

(Dr. Abdul Majeed Kak, 66, was born and in Nowhatta, Srinagar. He received his primary education from the Government Middle School in Nowhatta and his secondary school education from Bagi Dilawar Khan Higher Secondary School in Fateh Kadal. He completed his college education at the Islamia College of Science and Commerce in Srinagar. In 1977 he was the first candidate from the University of Kashmir to be selected by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of the Government of India for a doctoral research scholarship at the university leading to a Ph.D. in Botany in 1980. He is currently the Research Coordinator in the Department of Botany at the Islamia College of Science and Commerce in Srinagar. Dr. Kak has over 35 years of teaching experience and research experience of over 25 years. He has received numerous research awards resulting in publication of 70 research papers and has authored two books on Botany. He is presently engaged in promoting and strengthening local and regional museums, a project supported by a grant from the Ministry of Culture, New Delhi.)

Impact of Tourism on Himalayan (Kashmir) Lakes

The idyllic vale of Kashmir is one of the loveliest spot of the world lying in the lap of Himalayas. It has remained famous since historical times and it is on records that some decades before, European tourists were attracted by this lovely spot, and used to tour after crossing gorges and high mountains on horses and donkeys, when there were no roads but only tracks and pathways. It has been rightly said by a great Persian poet, Shiekh Sa’idi, “If There Is Any Heaven on Earth, It Is Here In Kashmir, It is Here In Kashmir". This part of the world is famous for its heritage, cultures, peculiar customs, high snow capped mountains, meadows, pastures, grasslands, pine and deodar forests, freshwater lakes, other wetlands, and has attracted tourists from all over world for skiing, boating, rafting and overall to see the beauty of this vale and to procure peace and tranquillity.

There are numerous beautiful lakes, but only a few are famous being city lakes, easily approachable with all sorts of facilities and comforts. Among them is the world famous Dal Lake, one of the city lakes and another is Manasbal Lake, a rural lake more than 36 km away from city; present in the lap of beautiful mountains. Lakes in Ladakh are high altitudinal with severe climatic conditions and also in Jammu province; they are of least importance for lake tourism, because of non approachable means. Many lakes of valley once with crystal clear waters and without pollution and an attraction for tourists have lost their charm due to drastic anthropogenic activities such as land grabbing, silting, and addition of effluents, resulting in changed water chemistry, eutrophication and invasion of many other invasive noxious weeds. Also the carelessness of the authorities and their faulty policies has ultimately resulted in change of the entire form of these water bodies. Noticeable example is the Anchar lake, Khushhall Sar lake, Brari Numbal, Hokher Sar lake, Nilnag lake and Wular lake. Many of them are at the verge of extinction and are changing rapidly into marshes. Hokher sar once a fresh water lake, has turned into a marshy wetland, now recognised as International Ramsar Site as a water bird sanctuary.

Nowadays lake tourism has become a passion world over and is regarded as a biggest revenue generating industry. Same is the case with our State also, that has brought boom in our lake tourism. Lake tourism at present is considered as backbone of our State economy. Millions of tourists are attracted every year to visit the valley, particularly for Dal Lake which is a city lake with all facilities and comforts. Tourists enjoy scenic journey around the lake and a boat trip towards various lake islands. Many of them are bird lovers and they visit Lake Hokher Sar bird sanctuary to watch a multifarious of domestic and migratory birds coming from various parts of the world. The fascinating and attractive beauty of the Dal Lake is the presence of beautifully terraced Mughal Gardens and attractive religious places at the rim of high mountains around the lake, beautifully decorated with lovely cascades and fountains. built in 16th and 17th centuries by Mughal emperors.

Although tourism in the state is acclaimed to be one of the biggest revenue generating industries, generating thousands of jobs to our highly educated youth, improving the living standard of all classes of people, but on the other hand there are numerous threats and challenges for the ecological and environmental issues of these lakes. A variety of environmental goods and services provided by lakes make them vulnerable to human demand. Society’s demands for economic gains have contributed to the deterioration of water quality and aesthetic value of lakes. Over the years the value of lakes and water bodies/ wetlands is dwindling. Many lakes throughout the world, have been destroyed or decayed due to influx of tourists, same is the case with our lakes also. Several lakes within or at the periphery of urban areas are either destroyed or are slowly dying or drained and converted to commercial establishments as in the case of Anchar Lake, Mirgund,Hokher sar etc. The water level of the lakes is gradually reducing due to loss of catchment, and suction by the Department of PHE to supply portable water for city people. Change in the urban land use is taking place with reclamation of land from the lakes for real estate development. Lakes have become dumping grounds for effluents, both domestic, industrial as well as agricultural runoff.

It is noticed that more than 70% of the tourists are not environmental conscious. They litter everywhere, wherever they visit within or around the lakes. Picnic parties, either on lake islands or on the lake shores, throw their refusals directly into the lakes along with disposables. Even if they carefully dump it somewhere near the lake margin; it still gets washed down either by rains or by winds. A suggestion regarding the installation of dustbins was made to the lake authorities a number of times; instead they never paid any heed. House boats, hotels and other restaurants are jam packed by tourists almost in every season now; many of them are not properly installed with toilets, washrooms or bathrooms. Their disposals are not properly and regularly disposed, whole residual matter, filth etc. is directly dumped in lakes particularly in substandard house boats and hotels. Number of hotels and house boats is increasing enormously without any check, both within and towards the periphery of the lakes creating havoc in the water bodies. There are a few public conveniences from Dal Gate to Shahlimar Gardens for about a distance of 5 Km. The tourists or even a common local is compelled to use lake margins for relieving himself and that too ultimately goes into the lake. Kitchen wastes from big hotels and other eatery places are directly thrown in the lakes, that has ultimately affected and changed the overall form of these lakes; water colour, its chemistry and its aesthetic nature, its contamination has increased. The water that was once domestically utilized by locals has now turned toxic. Richness in nutrients has ended up in eutrophication; lakes with 6-13 m depth are becoming shallow, weed infestation has increased, noxious invasive are thriving luxuriantly, that has created a new threat to under water life, whose population is decreasing rapidly. Many of our economically important water weeds are suffocating and have either become extinct or are endangered.

The need of the hour is to aware travel agents and people concerned with lake tourism, about the importance and conservation of these lakes in tourism planning, development and environmental protection. Dal Lake attracts a large number of visitors in all seasons as it is included in all the lists of tourist attractions on the tourism portals throughout the world. Being one of the Himalayan lakes, it is a fragile ecosystem and severely threatened due to increased tourism. Some of our urban lakes are encroached from peripheral areas which get exposed when water level falls. Also, they have been subjected to rapid population growth, urbanization and formation of permanent lands for the construction of grand hotels. Immediate need is that lake authorities should be enough strong to implement High Court rulings. Court orders should be strictly implemented to stop further construction of House boats, hotels, restaurants and shops. Plugging of all hotel effluents and the kitchen wastes from the existing hotels flowing directly in the lake water should be stopped immediately. Water chemistry should be checked periodically not only by lake authorities only but also by various other authentic agencies and scientific laboratories and the results should be published in the local dallies to make a common man aware. Remedial steps should immediately be taken for their normalcy, conservation and restoration.

Sunday, May 5, 2013

Pluralistic Engagement in a Land of Million Ethnicities

Amin travels South of the Jawahar Tunnel, and finds himself face-to-face with people of varying convictions but willing to engage in a civil dialogue to learn from his viewpoint. Out of the dialogue comes the promise of bridging cultures and improving trust in a diverse land otherwise called the Indian subcontinent

(Dr. Mohammed Amin Sofi, 59, was born in Handwara. He received his early education from the Higher Secondary School in Handwara, and his B.Sc. from the Government Degree College in Baramulla. He subsequently received a Master's degree in Mathematics from the Aligarh Muslim University, and a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur which was followed by a 2-year post doctoral fellowship in Mathematics at Kiel University, Germany. Prof. Sofi teaches and conducts research in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Kashmir. In his leisure time, he enjoys reading books, listening to classical western music, Urdu ghazals and Bollywood music (pre-1980's), and reading newspapers and news magazines.)


As part of my engagements during the period of sabbatical leave from the university of Kashmir that included visits to certain centres of excellence in different parts of the country and abroad, the one to my almamatar at IIT Kanpur was particularly special, considering that it was here that I had spent the most memorable, fruitful and eventful years of my academic life as a Ph.D student in the early eighties. During this recent visit to the institute in early February this year where, apart from my professional engagements there that included invited talks at the department of mathematics, I caught up with my old friends at the campus and reminisced about our good old days there which was, and continues to be, full of life academically, and even otherwise.

During this interaction, what started off as an innocuous exchange of notes regarding our personal lives and how things have unfolded in our small individual worlds over the years, slowly led to an animated discussion about maths and science education in the country which soon gave way to an exchange on political, and later to a high decibel debate on such pesky issues as those involving religion and epistemology. It was at this stage that we began to court controversy, but which in the ultimate analysis, turned out to be a feast of sorts, at least in terms of the plurality of perspectives that were on offer on these issues.

Here what is important to note is that such a frank assessment of things would not have been possible had this discussion played itself out amongst a group of likeminded people, rather than in the midst of a motley group of individuals consisting mostly of agnostics, some of them atheists but very few of them of religious persuasion. As it happened, for whatever reasons- which in any case are not difficult to fathom-most of the questions regarding these issues were directed at me which I tried to answer to the best of my understanding, if not necessarily to the best of my knowledge that I frankly do not pretend to possess. The point I wish to emphasise is that it is possible to take a view that is ‘minimally unacceptable’ even amongst its diehard critics, if it is allowed to be based on an open and unbiased appraisal of things as opposed to that which is dictated by preconceived notions and congealed positions determined by accident(s) of birth, pedigree and social conditioning involving issues of religion, faith and other such things. This is achieved by presenting a picture that is not necessarily a run of the mill type, but is informed by a view that is humane, accommodating and more importantly, not out of sync with the basic spirit of Islam. Here is a sample of these questions and a brief outline of my responses based on how I look at these issues in the light of whatever little understanding I may claim to have of these things.

1. (From the agnostic): What is the philosophy behind ‘your’ islam making allowance for polygamy even when it is universally accepted as manifestly misogynist inasmuch as it is rarely the case that concurrence can be extracted from a married woman before her husband marries another woman. In any case, given her psychological makeup and the sentimentality she is hardwired to attach to relationships, it is unreasonable to expect her to say ‘yes’ to the suggestion that her husband would want to take another woman in the wedlock.

My answer: To the extent I understand, polygamy has been allowed in these very ‘rarest of rare circumstances’ that you have spelt out where, besides other conditions, concurrence from the first wife as an absolutely necessary condition has been obtained before her husband goes for a second marriage. A polygamy protagonist would see red in this suggestion and dismiss it as wishful, considering that in such a scenario a polygamous relationship would become as good as impractical. My take on this criticism is: so be it! In other words, the possibility of polygamy has to be accepted as probable or as rare as the likelihood or otherwise of a woman consenting to share a conjugal relationship with her husband who has no qualms in marrying another woman. A perceived preponderance of polygamous relationships amongst Muslims is not because, but in spite of a reluctance to stick to this basic principle governing polygamy, requiring consent from the first wife as a first condition. After all, how is it that in God’s scheme of things, something has been allowed as permissible for the ultimate good of someone ‘without taking care’ as it were, that this same permissible act is likely to cause untold pain and agony to someone else, which in the instant case, will surely be the fate of the first wife. In Islam, there is no sanctity attached to such acts that ignore this basic divine principle.

2. (From the atheist): Where is the need for God when, as scientists, we know of a symbiotic relationship between cause and effect which tells us, for instance, that the death of a human being is caused exclusively in view of some vital organs in the human body going dysfunctional for one reason or the other, rather than as an act of God.

My answer: Let me begin by saying that much though one doesn’t need to invoke religion or God in one’s quest for truth- scientific or otherwise as Stephen Hawking would have us believe- the fact is that faith in God does not in any way come in the way of an effort to understand nature and the world around us which reveals a cosmic design of everything in the universe that wouldn’t have come about in the absence of a grand designer at work. At a more mundane level, we know that individual action is determined by individual thought and a good thought is essentially shaped by a certain amount of faith in a reality that is absolute and unmistakably ubiquitous that one can choose to ignore, but only at the risk of one’s own ignorance - and arrogance. This motivates the next question which I shall pose and try to answer.

3. How does one explain the Quranic view of an earthquake as being caused as a divine punishment to people who have ‘gone astray from the path of virtue and righteousness’ rather than as a physical event occasioned by well established scientific principles involving movement of plates under the earth’s crest besides, of course, many other reasons based on science and observation.

To put this issue into perspective, it is necessary to digress a bit about the idea of resurrection. As I see it, the view that the dead will be resurrected (on the day of judgement) is in conformity with the idea of justice considering that as we all know it, it is rarely the case, for example, that justice gets dispensed according to one’s deeds in this world. A willingness to accept the possibility of an all-powerful individual riding roughshod over a weak fellow-being purely on the strength of his physical prowess and social/political clout without having to account for such misdeeds clearly militates against the sense of proportion that underlies the grand design marked by a breathtaking order that a perceptive observer gets to witness in the cosmos. On the other hand, the divine injunctions involving the occurrence of earthquakes as mentioned above are by no means outside the pale of scientific reasoning as we shall see. The fact is that the sins committed by man on earth are not necessarily limited to those which have been explicitly proscribed in the scriptures as such like, for example, the killing of fellow human beings, partaking of that which has been labelled as ‘haram’, fornication or theft and many other sins of that genre. How about those acts of man which are not explicitly mentioned as sinful in the holy scriptures, but are nevertheless harmful to man and the society: indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources leading to ecological imbalance, excessive use of commodities such as plastic and other non-biodegradable toxic substances in our daily lives or wastage of natural resources like food and water. These are some of the factors which are known to accelerate and even trigger the onset of natural disasters like floods, famine or even a Tsunami or an earthquake with devastating consequences for human life on earth. Rather than view the scientific reasons and the religious perspective on such occurrences as an earthquake at variance with each other, the two points of view can be seen to supplement each other as soon as one begins to interpret the above mentioned acts as sinful and hence to be shunned for a peaceful life on earth and reward in the hereafter.

4. (From all those present there): Why is it that the Muslim world lags behind the rest of the world in science and technology, even when they command such immense resources?

My answer: Again, I must begin with a disclaimer that there is nothing new about the perspective that I have to offer on this issue. To my mind, the slow development of science in Muslim countries is mostly on account of attitudinal rather than of material reasons. That clearly explains the poor state of education, especially of science education in large parts of the Muslim world? What is needed for progress are the behavioural changes that seek to put a huge premium on the acquisition and creation of knowledge, as opposed to espousing a worldview- mostly prevalent in the Muslim world- where the singular meaning attached to the idea of a ‘decent life’ is solely in terms of material well being, rather than in the quintessential spirit of Islam that seeks excellence both of the human mind and soul. This mindset is reminiscent of the Dark Ages, which preceded Renaissance, where scholasticism was ruling the roost, deriving its sustenance from dogmatism, blind faith and indifference to fact. We are still trapped in the school of scholasticism which believed in order to understand as opposed to modern science which seeks to understand in order to believe. Science cannot flourish in a milieu where things are taken for granted as has been the case with the way islam has been presented over the centuries where one is taught to accept things as they are, without the need for asking questions. It is precisely in the espousal of the Cartesian dictum of putting everything to doubt that modern science has progressed, bringing in its wake immense technological benefits to humanity. Apart from this, we must understand that science is essentially secular whereas the religion of islam-at least in the form in which it is largely practiced – has been presented as a monolith with an exclusive emphasis on the otherworldliness that is strangely- and, of course wrongly- eked out as the be-all-and-end-all of Quran.

5. Among other issues which were broached during this discussion, the one pertaining to the question involving the existence of God took the centre stage. What I said about this issue is part of folklore and it is not my case to pretend that my views on this count are meant to provide fresh insights into this complex issue. I maintained that God’s signs are visible only to the prepared mind and that these signs have to be sought as much in the diversity as in the disparity of things that are at display all around. What I was obviously referring to was the diversity of life forms, of peoples inhabiting this planet, of the myriad languages spoken all over, of the variety of individual talent of human beings, of the limitless cosmos of which our planet is but a negligibly tiny part, and most importantly of the plurality of faiths as an act of God who couldn’t have chosen to perch a segment of his creation on a higher pedestal than the other. On the other hand, there is this ubiquitous disparity that exists between sections of society, that which is witnessed in the fortunes of people in terms of their access or otherwise to the good things of life. How else does one explain the commonplace but the frequently encountered phenomenon involving, say two siblings brought up in exactly the same conditions and environment at home and in the society, but one of them growing up as a robust and healthy young individual and living happily all the way into his eighties, whereas the other being beset with a host of deadly diseases and losing his life in his early youth. There certainly is no reasonable scientific explanation of this phenomenon, and in this and in the diversity and disparity we see all around, there are unmistakable signs of God, if only one cares to reflect and ponder in order to make the right selection from the maze of alternatives God has made available to man to choose from.