Introduction to Blog

I launched the website and the Blog after having spoken to government officials, political analysts and security experts specializing in South Asian affairs from three continents. The feedback was uniformly consistent. The bottom line is that when Kashmiris are suffering and the world has its own set of priorities, we need to find ways to help each other. We must be realistic, go beyond polemics and demagoguery, and propose innovative ideas that will bring peace, justice and prosperity in all of Jammu and Kashmir.

The author had two reasons to create this blog. First, it was to address the question that was being asked repeatedly, especially, by journalists and other observers in the U.S., U.K., and Canada, inquiring whether the Kashmiri society was concerned about social, cultural and environmental challenges in the valley given that only political upheaval and violence were reported or highlighted by media.

Second, the author has covered the entire spectrum of societal issues and challenges facing Kashmiri people over an 8-year period with the exception of politics given that politics gets all the exposure at the expense of REAL CHALLENGES that will likely result in irreversible degradation in the quality of life and the standard of living for future generations of Kashmiris to come.

The author stopped adding additional material to the Blog once it was felt that most, if not all, concerns, challenges and issues facing the Kashmiri society are cataloged in the Blog. There are over 1900 entries in the Blog and most commentaries include short biographical sketches of authors to bring readers close to the essence of Kashmir. Unfortunately, the 8-year assessment also indicates that neither Kashmiri civil society, nor intellectuals or political leadership have any inclination or enthusiasm in pursuing issues that do not coincide with their vested political agendas. What it means for the future of Kashmiri children and their children is unfathomable. But the evidence is all laid out.

This Blog is a reality check on Kashmir. It is a historical record of how Kashmir lost its way.

Vijay Sazawal, Ph.D.

Friday, October 26, 2012

Saving Anchar Lake

Majeed says the lake is under the authority of the Srinagar Municipal Corporation, which appears to be unfamiliar with the concept of lake conservation, leading him to appeal directly to public

(Dr. Abdul Majeed Kak, 65, was born and in Nowhatta, Srinagar. He received his primary education from the Government Middle School in Nowhatta and his secondary school education from Bagi Dilawar Khan Higher Secondary School in Fateh Kadal. He completed his college education at the Islamia College of Science and Commerce in Srinagar. In 1977 he was the first candidate from the University of Kashmir to be selected by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of the Government of India for a doctoral research scholarship at the university leading to a Ph.D. in Botany in 1980. He is currently the Research Coordinator in the Department of Botany at the Islamia College of Science and Commerce in Srinagar. Dr. Kak has over 35 years of teaching experience and research experience of over 25 years. He has received numerous research awards resulting in publication of 70 research papers and has authored two books on Botany. He is presently engaged in promoting and strengthening local and regional museums, a project supported by a grant from the Ministry of Culture, New Delhi.)


Once tourists visited this lake in large numbers, Anchar lake was connected with the illustrious Dal Lake through a channel called Nallah Aamir Khan. Anchar Lake was neat and clean with its crystal clear waters used for drinking as well as for other domestic purposes. It is on records that visitors used to take a boat ride from Dal Lake to the Khushal Sar lake and used to stroll all around this lake. It is also said that the tourists used to come in house boats spending nights together there in cool breeze summers, gazing at the reflections of gigantic mountains like Mahadave and Tungal Ball. Unfortunately it was declared as a dead lake, because of its deteriorated condition. Encroachments by surrounding residents are going on war footing basis with illegal constructions and if these conditions persist and no strict measures are taken for its restoration, then the lake will perish very soon.

The government is in no way serious about it. No Waterways authority has been created to guard and take action against land grabbers. Presently the lake is under the authority of Srinagar Municipal Corporation, which is overburdened with its own work and is unable to understand the concept of lake conservation. For the past many years there has been much deterioration and its peripheries are witnessing rapid illegal encroachments without any check by the concerned authorities. In the interior of the lake, marshlands have been created directly from the Lake Basin and large scale cultivation of water weeds as cash crops is practiced such as English willows (used for wicker work) are grown on large tracks. Small but concrete chambers used for baking of English willow branches have also been installed close to its shores and the residual matters are directly poured into the lake that has multiplied the stress on lake.

On large chunks of land leaving small water pathways in between are cultivated poplars and willows that have turned whole peripheral areas into a thick forest as a result not a single ray of light penetrating inside the lake which will lead to the wiping of all flora and fauna. Besides there are many other reasons that has made this lake almost dead. Few years before, environmentalists raised a cry about the liquid and solid biomedical wastes of SKIMS which is directly poured in lake. Although some measures were taken by the authorities of the Institute on the behest of Pollution Control Board and two furnaces were installed in 2008 for the disposal of solid wastes. But only one remained in function and is not sufficient to cater the function of disposal of all solid wastes. But disposal of liquid wastes is still problem, there is no proper disposal for it.

When a local boatman was asked regarding these disposals he put both his hands on ears, saying that the population of surrounding areas is suffocating as the amputated human body parts are directly thrown in the lake without following any proper disposing methods. The smell after their decay suffocates the entire area besides, attracting scavengers and other predators, causing nuisance. Part of River Sind with its glacial water enters the lake from its northern side contributing to its malady by filling it with tons of silt. Many of its out lets have filled up and are converted into permanent lands which are presently used by the locals for cultivation of vegetables and other crash crops. Discharge of untreated effluents, sewage from surrounding human settlements is directly pouring in it. Putrefied domestic animals are seen floating in its waters, making the lake water extremely polluted and filthy. Nauseous smell stifles the explorers and prevents them to move beyond for survey.

The fauna and flora once excellently thriving few decades before are now replaced by eutrophic weeds. Many of medicinal and nutritional plants of the lake are either totally extinct or are near extinction. Close to Sluice gate (second gate of Dal Lake) at Nalabal Nowshera, is a large scale washing centres of Kashmiri shawls, which discharges thick layers of detergent foam daily, that ultimately enters Anchar lake, via Khushal sar, that has further contaminated and deteriorated the pathetic condition of Anchar Lake.

There is an immediate need to protect this valley lake that has been completely ignored by the Government. Massive funds are allotted to other valley lakes every year, lake and waterways are created for their restoration and up gradation, unfortunately no attention is paid towards Anchar Lake, which is dying slowly with the negligence of Government. Serious thought is needed in order to regain its past glory. Nallah Aamir Khan Canal is squeezed from both sides by the influential locals and has been turned into a dustbin for all sorts of garbage and trash thrown directly in it. Even an ordinary small boat cannot pass through it and not to talk of a spacious houseboat or tourist Shikara. Rowing of such boats in the Nallah was a common practice few decades before. clearing and drugging of this canal is badly needed. Court orders after surveying revenue records of this canal should be strictly implemented to push back the land grabbers. Stoppage of peripheral encroachment from Soura, Buchpora to umarhear is immediately needed.

There is an immediate need to generate awareness about this lake so that people know its importance and advantage. Construction of well planed sewage network with filtration plants to arrest the flow of toxic waste into this lake is also needed on priority basis. Few settlement tanks should also be constructed to restrict heavy loads of silt coming from River Sind. Restriction is immediately implemented for loaded trucks carrying building materials in these areas and law breakers should be heavily penalized. Pathetic condition of Anchar lake, floating carcasses. 

The Secret to Kashmir's Growth and Development

Junaid calls for structural reforms in the state to attract private capital

(Mr. Junaid Azim Mattu, 26, was born in Srinagar. He partly completed his schooling at the Burn Hall School, Srinagar, and partly at the Bishop Cotton School, Shimla. He attended college in America and graduated with a degree in Business and Finance from the Eli Broad School of Business at Michigan State University. He is a consulting financial analyst and telecom-IT entrepreneur based in Srinagar. A seeded national varsity debater throughout his school and college career (his grandfather - Khwaja Ghulam Ahmed Ashai - was one of the founding fathers of the Muslim/National Conference), Mr. Mattu also played under-19 cricket at national level for J&K. He is a founder of the World Kashmiri Students Association (WKSA), a global youth association for Kashmiris based in Srinagar, Kashmir, working on social, economic and political issues through constructive and informed activism. WKSA, as of today has 1,700+ registered members in Kashmir. He is also a nominated alumnus of the Global Young Leaders Conference. He is also the Srinagar District President of J&K Peoples’ Conference, led by Mr. Sajad Lone. In his leisure time, Junaid likes to engage in reading, gardening, watching movies and listening to music.)

Private Sector Revolution

Job creation in the present times, we must understand, is a consequence of business creation and growth. We must also understand and reconcile with the reality that any further job creation in the public sector in J&K would mean greater budget deficits, lesser money for development, infrastructure growth and poverty alleviation, and a more dependent, dormant economy for our State. Sifting through the rhetoric of previous successive State governments, little has been done to facilitate a private sector growth in J&K. Our system continues to be bureaucratic and corrupt to the core. Entrepreneurship in J&K is harder than it ever was. And that is where, hidden behind nonsense schemes and false promises, our answers lie.

The debate on the future prospects of and the urgency of impetus to private sector in J&K has been vague both within the State as well as on the potential investment spectrum across India. While as countless star-studded delegations of corporate leaders from India can visit J&K and speak of increased cooperation and trust in the State and its youth, little of this business has translated and will translate into direct corporate investment in our State. And first and foremost the blame rests within. There is a term in development economics called ‘Sector Ecosystems’. A sector ecosystems is the state of infrastructure, regulation and facilitation that exists in a specific sector. J&K needs improvised, modern and investment-friendly sector ecosystems to attract investment and unfortunately contrary to the ribbon-cuttings and newspapers statements from successive governments, the general, collective ecosystem of J&K’s economy is underdeveloped, underserved and impoverished.

A private Indian company that sees potential in a certain sector in J&K would be faced with the daunting reality of bad roads, inadequate road connectivity, an electricity deficiency and power cuts and to add to the woes – clueless, top-heavy and corrupt State governments that have historically stayed away from regulatory and economic reforms. This in development economics is termed as grave ‘sector ecosystem risk’. And let’s not be naive enough to expect any private business concern driven by the penultimate goal of its bottom-line to overlook this risk and invest in J&K just to ‘encourage’ or ‘embrace’ the alienated people of this State. That’s not going to happen.

So what can be done to sow the seeds for a thriving private sector in J&K? The government needs to bring immense changes in the State’s regulatory environment to start with. All State governments in J&K till date have enacted and enforced rules and policies that have aimed at favoring State and public entities at the expense of private sector concerns. This eco-environment is detrimental to all initiatives that aim to attract investment in J&K – “initiatives” both from business houses of India and State governments in J&K. Excessive regulations and a new age ‘License Raj’ in J&K has immensely hindered entrepreneurial and commercial activities, as entrepreneurs and businessmen have to spend more time and money to comply with these obstructionist rules and regulations than carrying out their productive, valuable business activities. The other issue might be due to regulatory compliance issues due to the State’s “special” status where business enterprises from across the country could be required – in some form or the other – to have a State government agency or a local company as a “partner”. Let’s face it – TATA or Reliance won’t invest in J&K to either grab land or change the State’s demographics. This impression given by State government’s in New Delhi about the people of the State being paranoid and emotional on and around this issue is a perpetuated farce to serve the monopolistic goals of our traditional political parties.

The amount and extent of capital inducement we need in J&K won’t be achieved through subsidies that a deficient, debt-ridden State could possibly offer. The State Government, in tandem with the Central Government should rather provide tax-breaks, low-cost government loans and single-window clearance systems across sectors. Such government-sponsored business inducements could provide investing companies the possibility of making a business more profitable in a shorter span of time.

 J&K’s (as is the case with any potential investment destination) investment attraction as a destination for investment capital depends on its development of infrastructure, its resource availability – both physical and labor, productivity and workforce skills and the development of an investor friendly regulatory environment. The State Government could benefit from the recent HRD initiative of Community Colleges that would provide vocational two-year associate degrees on a credit-based system. Such colleges, if incorporated into the State’s education sector could translate into a new wave of trained, skilled-workforce. J&K needs such an availability of low-cost, skilled workforce that possesses the necessary aptitudes, experience and proficiencies to create, manufacture and provide goods and services that can compete at the national level. The State Government also needs to get its act straight on the infrastructure frontier as well. J&K needs better roads, more bridges, wider highways and other forms of physical infrastructure to make the State a viable investment destination.

Until such reforms take place there won’t be any private sector growth in J&K – visiting corporate delegations or not. And if there is no private sector growth, there won’t be any new jobs. That’s the cold, hard reality.

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Fayyaz, probably the bravest investigative journalist working in Srinagar, is the first to expose the depth of corruption in the principal Government owned radio and television channel broadcasting from Srinagar

(Mr. Ahmed Ali Fayyaz, 49, was born in Bodina, Budgam, and received his primary and secondary education in Budgam and later at Amar Singh College, Srinagar. He completed his Master's degree in Kashmiri language and literature from the University of Kashmir in 1987. After working with Rashtriya Sahara and Kashmir Times in 1993-94, and later for 13 years as Srinagar Bureau Chief of Daily Excelsior, he is woking as Resident Editor/ Srinagar Bureau Chief of Jammu-based English daily Early Times since April 2009. He is also a filmmaker whose forte in audio-visual media is Kashmir's composite culture, heritage, ecology and social issues. Since February 2008, he has been regularly anchoring Take One Television's bi-weekly hard talk show "Face To Face With Ahmed Ali Fayyaz" which is watched by more than three million viewers in Srinagar, Jammu and other urban areas of Jammu & Kashmir.)

How Srinagar DD officials Looted Exchequer With Impunity

Srinagar: With the two-year-long Early Times campaign heading for its logical conclusion and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) launching a fresh exercise to crack the network of corruption, it has now become clear that officials under the headship of Dr Rafeeq Masoodi have created unauthorized liability of Rs 37.53 Crore in a few months at Doordarshan Kendra (DDK) Srinagar. Even as some fiction and musical serials have been approved in the infamous "in-house" category for certain genuine private producers, it has been observed that most of these hundreds of proposed serials have been "approved" for either unknown and fictitious persons or those having no knowledge or legitimate connection with the electronic media.

Well-placed and informed sources disclosed exclusively to Early Times that before his departure from DDK Srinagar, Dr Masoodi had sought "gunny bags of proposals" from a coterie of his subordinate officials and approved them in bulk, mostly in the first six months of year 2011. In July 2011, he was shifted to DD headquarters and replaced as Head of Programme by DDP Shami Shair. All these surreptitiously approved and telecast programme serials were processed allegedly on "advance commission of 20% of the approved budget". With the exception of some senior private producers, all the beneficiaries are alleged to have paid bribes in lieu of "approval". Mostly drama and musical serials, these proposals of "private producers" were categorized as the DDK's own "in-house" productions.

Even as most of the facilities, including studio, sets, make up, transport, cameras, editing suites, graphics, lights and costumes were very much available in DDK's own stores, payments were processed in the name of "private facility providers". Names of the "facility providers" were obviously collected from the beneficiary private producers who submitted these proposals through DDK's regular Producers and got the "approval" from the Head of Programme.

Sources said that inquiries have revealed that not more than 20 of these private producers, who remained all under shadow, were senior and genuine professionals. Only the Kendra's regular Producer knew as to which serial belonged to which private producer. According to these sources, over 90% of these proposals belonged to unknown persons who gave fictitious names of the payees---in whose name cheques were and would be drawn on account of providing different facilities. Sources said that hundreds of tapes "even in gunny bags" landed secretly in DDK Srinagar stores. While as many of these programmes were telecast, mostly remained untelecast and a cumulative liability for DD. It was in just few months that Dr Masoodi and his subordinate Producers created the whopping liability of Rs 37.53 Crore for the key head of Programme Professional Special Services (PPS). There is a particular quarterly ceiling for PPS which the Kendras can not exceed under any circumstances.

Immediately after Dr Masoodi's transfer, DD headquarters asked about this huge pile of tapes and liabilities. None other than Masoodi's successor, Shami Shair, communicated to DG Doordarshan, through ADG Venkateshawrlu, under No: DKS/PA-1P-2011 Dated 21-07-2011, that the volume of PPS liability at DDK Srinagar was a whopping Rs 37.53 Cr till 8-7-2011.

According to her official communication, a copy of which is in possession of Early Times, just eleven of DDK Srinagar's regular Producers have created huge liability of Rs 31 Crore. They include Mrs Shair herself who had got 'in-house' programmes to the tune of Rs 1.04 Cr approved from Dr Masoodi.

Transmission Executive Rajeev Sadhu tops the list. He has created liability of Rs 7.36 Crore. According to Mrs Shair's official letter, contracts to the tune of Rs 68,10,000 of Mr Sadhu's programmes were lying with Accounts Section. Other of his "in-house" programmes to the tune of Rs 1.32 Crore had been approved and telecast, while as programmes worth Rs 5.31 Crore were yet to be telecast and paid.

On this very communication, Mandi House had frozen telecast and payment of all these scandalously made proposals and launched a departmental investigation last year. Most of the people associated with DD have been demanding that this lot of programmes should be fully canceled and the DDK officials booked in criminal matters.

Rasheed Javed, who has recently retired, has created a liability of Rs 4.10 Crore. He is closely followed by Programme Executive Haleema Parveen who has created liability of Rs 3.82 Crore. Programme Executive Javed Bukhari has created liability of Rs 3.64 Crore, Film Editor Tanveer Hussain Mir Rs 2.73 Crore, Pr Ex Sudesh Bakshi Rs 1.70 Crore, now retired Pr Ex Ghulam Mohiuddin a liability of Rs 1.32 Crore, Cameraman Mushtaq Ahmad Khan Rs 1.24 Crore, Floor Manager Bashir Ahmad Dar Rs 1.13 Crore and DDP Qayoom Wadera, who is new Head of Programmes at DDK Srinagar, has also created liability of Rs 1.17 Crore.

Even as total liability of Rs 1.17 Crore has been shown against the programmes proposed/produced by Mrs Shair, some insiders insist that she had concealed liability of over Rs 2 Crore in her communication. Interestingly, maximum of her liability is reported to have been cleared during her tenure of 15 months.

Reviving Handicraft Industry

Commentary in the Rising Kashmir about challenges faced by handicrafts industry in the State

Artisans’ Needs Have to be Prioritized for the Industry to Survive

Even though considered to be the backbone of self reliance in Kashmir, handicrafts and handloom industries have not grown exponentially in the state; beyond state is a farfetched goal thus. Besides, the sector is beleaguered with problems with warnings that if no serious attention is paid, will result in total annihilation of this sector in Kashmir. The industry is facing an all-round assault from counterfeit products within and outside the state.

It has left a serious injury, which continues to get graver, on brand Kashmir. The impact on the lives of local artisans can only be imagined. As per the available statistics, many experts agree that there are around 20 lakh Kashmiris directly or indirectly associated with the trade. The boom in counterfeit Kashmir handicraft products have not only demoralised the local artisans but have given the industry a bad name and has resulted in the reduction of genuine handicraft sale. Reasons cited are many: Kashmir conflict, less remuneration for the local artisans and lack of quality resources, primarily the manpower.

Government on its part has for long considered the handicraft industry as an unofficial ambassador of Kashmir to outside world but has done little to address the lacunae so far. Lately, in order to push the sector out of the deep abyss that the government woke up to find it in, it has been announcing a slew of measures to pull it up. In a recent directive, the state, under its Artisan Credit Card Scheme (ACCS), has decided to cover about 70,000 artisans from Srinagar city. The scheme, intended to alleviate poverty of the target lot, will provide artisans loans at 2 percent interest and is aimed at ‘uplifting the artisan’s standard of living’.

Only time will tell whether this scheme will be able to bring about the desired outcome. The step is nevertheless an important one in addressing the needs of handicraft industry in general and the artisan community in particular. Such measures, therefore, need to be reciprocated at other levels as well. It is also pertinent that awareness be spread among the customers who find themselves duped to pay a genuine price for a fake Kashmiri art piece.

Big business establishments in Kashmir who have made a fortune in this sector also need to chip in as their stakes are much higher. Needless to say, they have a bigger responsibility towards their workforce which for a long time has found itself striving to make a decent living for themselves and their dependents.

The Curse of Having a Baby at the Lal Ded Hospital

Tragedies come and come again, but the staff of the Lal Ded (LD) Hospital and government officials are unimpressed

LD Hospital Sits on Probe

Syed Rizwan Geelani (Rising Kashmir)

Srinagar: After failing to meet the 48-hour deadline, the inquiry committee supposed to look into the cause of death of a woman and her baby at L D Maternity Hospital is yet to submit its report even as seven days have passed since the panel was constituted.

The doctors committee was constituted on September 12 by Medical Superintendent (MS) LD hospital and it was supposed to submit the report within 48 hours.

The committee, headed by Dr. Shahnaz Taing was constituted after a baby girl died when her mother’s womb was allegedly pushed by the doctors after she was admitted to the hospital on September 10. Hours after the death of baby, her mother was shifted to SMHS Hospital for special treatment where she succumbed. Death of baby and mother triggered massive protests in the LD hospital against the alleged negligence of doctors following the removal of uterus of patient, admitted to the hospital for delivery.

The Medical Superintendent LD Hospital, Mushtaq Ahmad Rather had claimed that a committee has been constituted to look into the cause of death of baby and her mother. “We have constituted a committee in this regard which will submit its report within 48 hours. The accused doctors will be penalized if found guilty,” Rather had told media persons on September 10.

According to the relatives of the deceased patient, Mehbooba wife of Abdul Hamid Bhat from Nehalpora Pulwama was admitted to the hospital on September 10 at 6:15 AM. According to them Mehbooba was not given proper treatment which made her condition critical.

“She was shifted to labor room but no doctor attended her,” said Parvez Ahmad Yatoo, brother of late Mehbooba. He said doctors pushed the womb of her sister miserably resulting in death of baby and damage of uterus as well. “Doctors were behaving like bouchers and removed uterus of Mehbooba. they didn’t agree for her surgery but doctors behaved unexpectedly with her,” Yatoo said. Demanding the suspension of the accused doctors Yatoo said the committee should submit its report immediately. “Doctors are responsible for everything. Their negligence killed my sister and her baby. They should be penalized for this,” demanded Yatoo.

Talking to Rising Kashmir, Medical Superintendent LD Maternity Hospital said the committee is not an investigation agency which will complete the work within 48 hours. “It will take some time for committee to submit its report. Our team is not investigative agency. The investigation cannot be completed within two days. Once it is completed we will make the report public and punish the doctors if found guilty,” he said. When asked why there was a delay in submitting the report he said apart from investigating the case, doctors have to run the system of the hospital. “Due to the rush of the patients admitted here, doctors have to stick to their schedule to attend patients. People can say anything. We have a lot of work here still we are trying our best to get the report completed as soon as possible.”

Meanwhile SHO Raj Bagh, Riyaz Ahmad said that they have shot a letter to the hospital authority to submit the list of the doctors who were handling the case. “We gave them a reminder regarding the case but are yet to get any reply,” Ahmad told Rising Kashmir.

This is Not a Trevi Fountain

Do you know that water through fountains of Rome (including the famous Trevi) is hygienically portable? How about recently constructed fountains in Srinagar?

Fountains in City Crave for Attention

Faiqa Masoodi (Rising Kashmir)

Srinagar: The fountains erected at several major junctions across the city have failed to add to the charm of the summer capital as they either remain off or shower stagnant water.

There are 12 major fountains at road junctions in the city. These include the one near Tourist Reception Centre, Karan Nagar, Rainawari and Pantha Chowk. The fountains were installed at various places across the city way back in year 2007 and a whooping Rs 20 lakh were spent on each fountain, sources within Srinagar Municipal Corporation said.

The fountains were a part of SMC’s drive to beautify the city. The existing fountains were also renovated and attractive lights were added to them. However, the ambitious project could not take flight and the fountains started “dying” due to one reason or the other.

Maintaining that the fountains have a great aesthetic importance, President Jammu and Kashmir Tourism Alliance (JKTA) said, “The fountains give a feeling of pleasure and relief to those who sit by its side whether they are tourists or locals. Their maintenance is must and the water used should be changed regularly. Same water can be reused but it should not be allowed to get stagnated.”

People say the water is not drained out from the fountains for days together.

“Mere decoration won’t help as fountains need proper maintenance. Sitting around these fountains which otherwise should be relaxing gives a feeling of displeasure as bad smell emanates from them always. The pools around fountains are filled with all sorts of garbage. Not a single dustbin can be seen near any fountain,” said Tasleem Ahmad, a student.

SMC Commissioner, G N Qasba said he has no knowledge about the time gap after which the water for the fountains is changed. “I have no knowledge which water is used in the fountains. I will confirm the reasons for non-functioning of fountains from the concerned officials,” said Qasba.

Meanwhile, Joint Commissioner SMC, Fayaz Ahmad Bala said there are some technical problems which at times cause inconvenience. “All fountains in water do not fall under SMC jurisdiction and some are under the Department of Floriculture also. At times the motor pumps of these fountains get heated up so we have to stop them. We are trying to work out all wrongs in fountains,” said Bala.