(Mr. Iqbal Ahmad, 48, was born in Parigam Chek, Kulgam. He is a graduate with Diploma in Numismatics, Archaeology and Heritage. He is an archaeologist, writer, and a cultural historian. He is employed by the Jammu and Kashmir State Government. Mr. Iqbal Ahmad has published 12 reference books on Kashmir archaeology and heritage.)
In numerous passages of the Rajatarangni and other chronicles of Jon raja, Srivara and Kshenedra, there are reference to term dinara which served as a monetary token in ancient Kashmir perhaps Kashmiri term dyar also reflected the same name when we say dyar-wol we means any person possessing huge sums. Dinar has been a popular term used in terms of monetary token in ancient Kashmir and its influence has been so strong that the term is still used. Scholars have been identifying this dinar with ancient gold coin, issued here by Kushana Princes in early centuries of the Christian era.
Although the term dinar later got wrongly used in literatures for mentioning of other coins too but the term actually refers to the Kushan gold coin. The copper coins of Kushans and Tetra dirham are commonly known from Kashmir.
Numismatists and Archaeologists have found thousands of Kushan dirham and Tetra dirham and several diners from various places of Kashmir.
There are several such types which have been found while few of others are viewed to have been exclusively issued to meet the currency requirements of this province. Such coins are known as provincial series coins, numismatists like Cunningham, Roshan Field, David Macdowell, Michel Mitchner and several others have got this view. I personally feel that such coin types as are found were not only current here but also minted somewhere within Kashmir borders.
One such earlier copper coin type of Kujula Kadphsis is of Bull and camel type depicting camel on one side and bull on the other side of the coin, perhaps, the earliest Kushan type coin found in Kashmir. This type has been found absent in the Kujulas Afghanistan. The study under taken by noted numismatists Dr. David Macdowell, he has came across few piece from Khotan region, G B Bleazby and R C Kak have recorded few pieces of this type from Kashmir. The type on obverse bears humped bull and on reverse humped camel.
In year 1987 state Archaeology Department came across three copper pieces of this earlier Kushan coin at village Maidan, Chagul in frontier district of Kupwara. These coins are in bad condition but could be deciphered as Bull Came type coins. Carrying the motif of humped Bull walking to right on obverse and camel as well walking to right on reverse. The letters of the Khroshti legend are partly visible. This discovery was followed by a remarkable purchase of small coins of this type called dirham by the state Museum authorities at Srinagar. About one hundred coins of Bull camel type coins were purchased by the Museum management in 1996. These coins could easily be denominated as drachms (dirham) and I am hundred percent sure that such coins were definitely minted to meet the domestic currency needs of Kashmir province. Not only this but such type was found absent in other finds of the empire and also assumed to have been minted somewhere in Kashmir. My investigations of few numismatics collections revealed number of such smaller Bull camel type coins. I could see them in several kgs once in the Zarab Khana Bazar of olden city of Srinagar.
My observations and investigations lead me to believe that as such coins were found exclusive in Kashmir hence had been minted in Kashmir. I could here also found several forgeries of this type, which speaks of the popularity of this type.